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Surnames

Surnames (or family names) are hereditary and are often common to all members of a family.

Occupational surnames are derived from an occupation. Examples include Taylor, Smith, and Baker.

Toponymic surnames are derived from a place. Examples include Ayers (a person from Ayers, Scotland) and Bach (German for a person who lives near a stream).

Religious surnames are derived directly or indirectly from religious texts or traditions. Examples include Christian biblical names, Hebrew names from the Torah, and Muslim names from the Quran.

Nickname derived surnames are those based upon appearance, temperament, or personality. An example is the German surname Schwarzkopf (in German, schwarz=black, Kopf= head) meaning a person with dark hair.

Ornamental surnames are those that were adopted or forced upon individuals (and families) under political pressure.

Patronymic surnames are derived from the given name of a male ancestor. An example is the English patronymic surname Peterson, meaning son of Peter.

Female patronymic surnames (also known as female possessive suffix surnames) are a female form of a patronymic surname, most typically a patronymic surname with a feminine suffix added. For example, in Russian, the wife of Mikhail Gorbachev is Raisa Gorbachova, -ev is replaced with ova.

Matronymic surnames are derived from the given name of a female ancestor. An example is the English matronymic surname Tiffany.

Popular Surnames (Family) in Estonia

Rank Name Meaning Distribution
100 Nõmm 827
99 Orav 827
98 Gross 827
97 Kolk 827
96 Kruus 827
95 Järve 843
94 Ivanova 843
93 Kase 843
92 Molder 858
91 Pihlak 858
90 Rohtla 858
89 Aru 873
88 Tali 873
87 Johanson 873
86 Laane 873
85 Järv 873
84 Annus 873
83 Kala 873
82 Ott 889
81 Braun 889
80 Maasik 904
79 Kass 919
78 Kotkas 919
77 Tomingas 919
76 Aavik 934
75 Lang 934
74 Kangur 934
73 Uibo 950
72 Nurk 950
71 Sikk 965
70 Kikas 965
69 Hein 965
68 Kalda 965
67 Vares 996
66 Valk 996
65 Mitt 1,042
64 Leppik 1,042
63 Paju 1,042
62 Anderson 1,072
61 Kõiv 1,088
60 Martin 1,103
59 Tamme 1,103
58 Sarapuu 1,118
57 Adamson 1,134
56 Lember 1,134
55 Laas 1,134
54 Jogi 1,149
53 Lind 1,149
52 Sild 1,164
51 Palm 1,164
50 Arro 1,180
49 Li 1,195
48 Kütt 1,195
47 Parn 1,195
46 Poder 1,210
45 Paas 1,226
44 Ou 1,226
43 Kim 1,226
42 Parts 1,226
41 Pukk 1,241
40 Allik 1,256
39 Lõhmus 1,272
38 Mets 1,287
37 Toom 1,302
36 Lill 1,348
35 Raud 1,409
34 Roos 1,425
33 Puusepp 1,440
32 Jakobson 1,455
31 Ivanov 1,486
30 Kivi 1,486
29 Saks 1,517
28 Liiv 1,517
27 Teder 1,532
26 Rand 1,578
25 Kuusik 1,593
24 Vaher 1,639
23 Kull 1,654
22 Ots 1,685
21 Lepp 1,731
20 Laur 1,808
19 Kallas 1,900
18 Luik 1,900
17 Raudsepp 1,915
16 Kaasik 1,946
15 Ilves 1,976
14 Miller 1,992
13 Peterson 2,053
12 Kuusk 2,068
11 Magi 2,206
10 Lepik 2,344
8 Oja 2,574
8 Rebane 2,650
7 Koppel 2,742
6 Kukk 3,202
6 Karu 2,803
4 Sepp 4,351
3 Kask 4,948
2 Saar 6,020
1 Tamm 7,874