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Surnames

Surnames (or family names) are hereditary and are often common to all members of a family.

Occupational surnames are derived from an occupation. Examples include Taylor, Smith, and Baker.

Toponymic surnames are derived from a place. Examples include Ayers (a person from Ayers, Scotland) and Bach (German for a person who lives near a stream).

Religious surnames are derived directly or indirectly from religious texts or traditions. Examples include Christian biblical names, Hebrew names from the Torah, and Muslim names from the Quran.

Nickname derived surnames are those based upon appearance, temperament, or personality. An example is the German surname Schwarzkopf (in German, schwarz=black, Kopf= head) meaning a person with dark hair.

Ornamental surnames are those that were adopted or forced upon individuals (and families) under political pressure.

Patronymic surnames are derived from the given name of a male ancestor. An example is the English patronymic surname Peterson, meaning son of Peter.

Female patronymic surnames (also known as female possessive suffix surnames) are a female form of a patronymic surname, most typically a patronymic surname with a feminine suffix added. For example, in Russian, the wife of Mikhail Gorbachev is Raisa Gorbachova, -ev is replaced with ova.

Matronymic surnames are derived from the given name of a female ancestor. An example is the English matronymic surname Tiffany.

Popular Surnames (Family) in Estonia

Rank Name Meaning Distribution
1 Tamm 7,874
2 Saar 6,020
3 Kask 4,948
4 Sepp 4,351
6 Kukk 3,202
6 Karu 2,803
7 Koppel 2,742
8 Oja 2,574
8 Rebane 2,650
10 Lepik 2,344
11 Magi 2,206
12 Kuusk 2,068
13 Peterson 2,053
14 Miller 1,992
15 Ilves 1,976
16 Kaasik 1,946
17 Raudsepp 1,915
18 Luik 1,900
19 Kallas 1,900
20 Laur 1,808
21 Lepp 1,731
22 Ots 1,685
23 Kull 1,654
24 Vaher 1,639
25 Kuusik 1,593
26 Rand 1,578
27 Teder 1,532
28 Liiv 1,517
29 Saks 1,517
30 Kivi 1,486
31 Ivanov 1,486
32 Jakobson 1,455
33 Puusepp 1,440
34 Roos 1,425
35 Raud 1,409
36 Lill 1,348
37 Toom 1,302
38 Mets 1,287
39 Lõhmus 1,272
40 Allik 1,256
41 Pukk 1,241
42 Parts 1,226
43 Kim 1,226
44 Ou 1,226
45 Paas 1,226
46 Poder 1,210
47 Parn 1,195
48 Kütt 1,195
49 Li 1,195
50 Arro 1,180
51 Palm 1,164
52 Sild 1,164
53 Lind 1,149
54 Jogi 1,149
55 Laas 1,134
56 Lember 1,134
57 Adamson 1,134
58 Sarapuu 1,118
59 Tamme 1,103
60 Martin 1,103
61 Kõiv 1,088
62 Anderson 1,072
63 Paju 1,042
64 Leppik 1,042
65 Mitt 1,042
66 Valk 996
67 Vares 996
68 Kalda 965
69 Hein 965
70 Kikas 965
71 Sikk 965
72 Nurk 950
73 Uibo 950
74 Kangur 934
75 Lang 934
76 Aavik 934
77 Tomingas 919
78 Kotkas 919
79 Kass 919
80 Maasik 904
81 Braun 889
82 Ott 889
83 Kala 873
84 Annus 873
85 Järv 873
86 Laane 873
87 Johanson 873
88 Tali 873
89 Aru 873
90 Rohtla 858
91 Pihlak 858
92 Molder 858
93 Kase 843
94 Ivanova 843
95 Järve 843
96 Kruus 827
97 Kolk 827
98 Gross 827
99 Orav 827
100 Nõmm 827